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March 26, 2014

Merck Licenses NanoBio Technology

Associated Press

ANN ARBOR, Mich., - NanoBio Corporation today announced a licensing agreement with a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, for the use of its nanoemulsion (NE) adjuvant technology.

Under the agreement, Merck receives exclusive rights to NanoBio's NE adjuvant for use in an intranasal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine and non-exclusive rights for use in an intranasal seasonal influenza and/or universal seasonal influenza ("Flu") vaccine. NanoBio receives an upfront payment and is eligible to receive milestone payments based on Merck RSV and Flu vaccine candidates' development and regulatory approvals, as well as royalties on sales of any Merck RSV or Flu vaccines that ultimately use the NanoBio NE adjuvant technology.

NanoBio's NanoStat@ technology platform employs a novel oil-in-water nanoemulsion that can incorporate, deliver and adjuvant multiple antigen types. The NE adjuvant is effective when administered via intranasal, intramuscular or subcutaneous vaccination. In recent studies, NanoBio has demonstrated that intranasal vaccination elicits robust systemic and mucosal immunity, thereby offering enhanced protection against respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases compared to intramuscular vaccination.

"We've collaborated with Merck on research in RSV since 2011 and are very pleased to broaden our relationship with this license agreement covering vaccine candidates for two respiratory diseases," said David Peralta, chief executive officer of NanoBio. "Merck's demonstrated leadership in developing and marketing vaccines makes them an ideal partner for NanoBio."

This is an example of successful translational research. The RSV NE adjuvant vaccine technology was originally developed at the Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences in collaboration with NanoBio Corp. with a $1,997,507 grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.


August 3, 2011:

NanoBio gets license from agency to develop vaccine to fight respiratory syncytial virus infections Crain's Business Detroit By Tom Henderson

NanoBio Corp. said today that it has been granted a license by the National Institutes of Health to develop the first vaccine to protect against infections caused by the respiratory syncytial virus.

The agreement gives Ann Arbor-based NanoBio the right to commercialize an antigen developed by the NIH using reversed-genetics technology.


Last November, NanoBio announced a $6 million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to develop an RSV vaccine.

NanoBio is a University of Michigan MNIMBS spinoff and MNIMBS is an approx. $2.9 M subcontractor on the Gates Foundation grant to help develop the RSV vaccine.

On March 29, 2011, Dr. Baker was inducted into the “League of Research Excellence”, which is designed to celebrate Medical School faculty researchers who achieve significant successes.

March 3, 2011: Professor Ted Norris and Professor Carol Fierke have been awarded the Rackham Distinguished Graduate Mentor Award. This award recognizes the considerable efforts and accomplishments of faculty who consistently serve as advisor, teacher, advocate, sponsor, and role model of our doctoral students.

Dr. Ted Norris is Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Director of the Center for Ultrafast Optical Science.  He serves on the MNIMBS Executive Board.

Dr. Fierke is Jerome and Isabella Karle Collegiate Professor of Chemistry, Chair of the Department of Chemistry, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and Professor of Biological Chemistry, Medical School. She serves on the MNIMBS Executive Board.

February 23, 2011: Our 2008 ACS Nano paper was just highlighted in the

ACS Nano Virtual Special Issue on Drug Delivery.

Synthesis, Characterization, and in Vitro Testing of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Targeted Using Folic Acid-Conjugated Dendrimers
Kevin J. Landmark, Stassi DiMaggio, Jesse Ward, Christopher Kelly, Stefan Vogt, Seungpyo Hong, Alina Kotlyar, Andrzej Myc, Thommey P. Thomas, James E. Penner-Hahn, James R. Baker, Jr., Mark M. Banaszak Holl, and Bradford G. Orr
ACS Nano, 2008, 2 (4), pp 773–783. DOI: 10.1021/nn800034w


December 20, 2010: Five Years In, Gauging Impact of Gates Grants

New York Times, By Donald G. McNeil Jr. To see the whole article.

SEATTLE — Five years ago, Bill Gates made an extraordinary offer: he invited the world’s scientists to submit ideas for tackling the biggest problems in global health, including the lack of vaccines for AIDS and malaria, the fact that most vaccines must be kept refrigerated and be delivered by needles, the fact that many tropical crops like cassavas and bananas had little nutrition, and so on.

No idea was too radical, he said, and what he called the Grand Challenges in Global Health would pursue paths that the National Institutes of Health and other grant makers could not.

About 1,600 proposals came in, and the top 43 were so promising that the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation made $450 million in five-year grants — more than double what he originally planned to give.

Now the five years are up, and the foundation recently brought all the scientists to Seattle to assess the results and decide who will get further funding.

In an interview, Mr. Gates sounded somewhat chastened, saying several times, “We were naïve when we began.”

As an example, he cited the pursuit of vaccines that do not need refrigeration. “Back then, I thought: ‘Wow — we’ll have a bunch of thermostable vaccines by 2010.’ But we’re not even close to that. I’d be surprised if we have even one by 2015.”

He underestimated, he said, how long it takes to get a new product from the lab to clinical trials to low-cost manufacturing to acceptance in third-world countries.

In 2007, instead of making more multimillion-dollar grants, he started making hundreds of $100,000 ones.

“Now,” he said, only half-kidding, “you get a hundred grand if you even pretend you can cure AIDS.”

The foundation is still supporting two thermostabilization techniques.

The first attaches vaccines to nanoparticles that can be absorbed by the skin inside the nostrils. Dr. James R. Baker Jr., director of the University of Michigan’s nanotechnology institute, said it works with hepatitis B and flu vaccine. He won a new grant to test the respiratory syncytial virus, which causes pneumonia.

The particles are in what Dr. Baker described as a “proprietary formulation of mayonnaise” based on soybean oil. The vaccine ends up inside the oil particles, which protect it from temperature changes and microbes. The immune system is “made to eat oil droplets,” Dr. Baker said, because it targets viruses, which are essentially time bombs of genetic instructions inside casings of fats. The “mayonnaise” is so safe, he said, that rats fed the equivalent of two quarts a day had only one side effect — weight gain. The emulsion by itself cures viral lesions like cold sores, he said; its surfactants harmlessly penetrate the skin but break up the herpes virus inside.

See remainder of article.


December 3, 2010: Shoot, score! Physics at play in the Big Chill hockey game; Professor Brad Orr, Associate Director of MNIMBS


ANN ARBOR, Mich.—Physics will be at play in every shot, check and goal of the attendance record-setting Big Chill at the Big House hockey match between the University of Michigan and Michigan State University on Dec. 11.

In a game-day public lecture packed with demonstrations, chair of the Physics Department and recreational hockey player Brad Orr will discuss some of the science behind the world's fastest sport. Physics lecturer Dave Winn will also take part.

University of Michigan News Service Click the YouTube video on the "Physics of Hockey."

December 1, 2010: Nanotechnology institute collaborates in $6 million vaccine program


U-M’s Michigan Nanotechnology Institute tapped to help NanoBio Corporation develop Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) intranasal vaccine


ANN ARBOR, Mich. – The University of Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences (MNIMBS) will be collaborating with a University spinout company to develop a safe and effective Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) intranasal vaccine.

Approximately one-third of a nearly $5.9 million grant awarded to the Ann Arbor-based NanoBio Corporation by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation will be subcontracted to MNIMBS in exchange for a two-year commitment to the project to help characterize the mechanism of action and in vivo immunogenicity of a series of nanoemulsion adjuvants and nanoemulsion-RSV vaccines.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is highly contagious and causes infection of the lungs and breathing passages. While symptoms are mild in adults, it is a major cause of respiratory illness in young children and can, in rare cases, cause death in infants, especially in developing countries. Children may develop chronic pulmonary disease and/or asthma that persists throughout adult life, making them susceptible to re-infection as adults. Currently, there are no approved vaccines for RSV.

 “While originally developed as microbicidal agents at the MNIMBS, studies fortuitously demonstrated that nanoemulsions are a promising new type of adjuvant for nasopharyngeal vaccines. A needle-free, intranasally administered nanoemulsion-based RSV vaccine would be a great advance in the effort to prevent RSV infection,” said James R. Baker, Jr., M.D., director of the MNIMBS and Ruth Dow Doan Professor of Internal Medicine at U-M. He also is founder and CEO of NanoBio.

MNIMBS invented the vaccine technology, and this technology was then transferred to NanoBio Corp. who named it NanoStat.™ The company’s lead vaccine candidate, NB-1008, is a seasonal influenza vaccine administered via a nasal dropper. In a recently completed Phase 1 clinical study, NB-1008 was safe, well tolerated and elicited both mucosal and systemic immune responses following a single intranasal vaccination in a study of 199 healthy adults.

Other intranasal vaccines under development in animals by the MNIMBS and NanoBio Corp. include pandemic influenza, hepatitis B, HIV, pneumococcal, anthrax and smallpox. This platform technology has demonstrated numerous advantages over traditional vaccines, including the ability to generate robust mucosal and systemic immunity; antigen-sparing qualities; cross-protection against non-vaccinated strains; ability to adjuvant multiple antigen types without inducing inflammation; thermally stabilizing the vaccine; and removing the need for needles and refrigeration.


October 12, 2010: Grant to explore nanotechnology anti-infective agent for wounded soldiers  (Nanowerk News) The U.S. Department of Defense has awarded $1.5 million over three years to the Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences and to Ann Arbor-based NanoBio Corporation to develop and test nanoemulsions with potential to fight a wide range of wound infections, including drug-resistant forms.

Also see: UMHS Newsroom:

The U.S. Department of Defense has awarded $1.5 million over three years to the Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences and to Ann Arbor-based NanoBio Corporation to develop and test nanoemulsions with potential to fight a wide range of wound infections, including drug-resistant forms.

Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan get infections, sometimes life-threatening, from shrapnel wounds, IED blast injuries and burns.  Bacteria from soil, air and a soldier’s skin can enter wounds on the battlefield.  A treatment easily applied in battle zones and in hospitals that is broadly effective against bacteria, viruses and fungi would help reduce these infections.

Present therapies aren’t effective enough against antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, and don’t prevent or control a problem soldiers with severe burns encounter: They may fall victim to long-lasting inflammatory responses that delay healing.

“A broadly effective nanoemulsion-based wound treatment that can be safely and easily applied at the time of injury, without causing pain or interfering with wound healing, would have great value to prevent infection, increase survival and enable more rapid healing of wounded United States military personnel,” says James R. Baker Jr., M.D., the principal investigator for the grant.

Baker directs the Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences (MNIMBS) at U-M. He is the Ruth Dow Doan Professor of Nanotechnology and allergy division chief at the U-M Medical School and is founder and CEO of NanoBio Corporation.

are made of soybean oil, alcohol, water and surfactants emulsified into droplets 200 to 600 nanometers in diameter. They have proved effective at killing a variety of bacteria, fungi and viruses in previous research.

The U-M Nanotechnology Institute and NanoBio will use the grant to develop 10 new formulations of nanoemulsions against bacteria, fungi and spores in lab culture studies, followed by animal studies for effectiveness and safety. If successful, the resulting nanoemulsion treatment would proceed to human trials. 

The grant allows U-M and NanoBio scientists to investigate another promising application for nanoemulsion technology developed by Baker with Department of Defense funds in the 1990s. Uses for nanoemulsions include treatments for cold sores, now in phase 3 clinical trials, and for toenail fungus and cystic fibrosis infections, as well as vaccines against influenza and bioterrorism agents.

In a study published earlier this year,  U-M researchers found that a nanoemulsion lotion used to treat burns in animals was able to reduce bacterial growth one-thousand-fold compared to control animals receiving no treatment or a placebo. The nanoemulsion also reduced inflammation processes that can cause burn injuries to worsen.

Patents/Disclosures: The patented nanoemulsion technology is licensed by U-M to NanoBio Corporation. Baker holds an equity interest in the company.

Co- investigators for the project: John LiPuma, M.D., professor of pediatrics and communicable diseases, U-M Medical School; Mark Hemmila, M.D., associate professor of surgery, U-M Medical School and the U-MTrauma Burn Research Laboratory; Douglas Smith, Ph.D., research assistant professor, U-M Department of Internal Medicine and MNIMBS; Paul E. Makidon, Ph.D., D.V.M., research investigator, U-M Department of Internal Medicine, Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine and MNIMBS; Susan Ciotti, Ph.D., director of formulations research and development, NanoBio Corporation.


Septemeber 15, 2010: NanoBio Corporation presented data from two separate Phase 1 clinical trials at the 2010 Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), in Boston, Mass., Sept. 12-15. NanoBio further translates the nanoemulsion and nanoemulsion based adjuvant vaccine technologies that were first developed at MNIMBS. Nanobio shared clinical data demonstrating that its nanoemulsion adjuvanted intranasal flu vaccine, NB-1008:

  • Elicited both mucosal and systemic immunity following a single intranasal vaccination;
  • Was safe and well tolerated in healthy adults when administered intranasally;
  • Demonstrated proof-of-concept for needle-free vaccines with increased disease protection that could be valuable for high risk populations.

NanoBio also shared clinical data demonstrating that its topical bactericidal oil-in-water emulsion, NB-003:

  • Demonstrated in vivo reduction of P. acnes, comparable to what has been reported separately for topical antibiotics marketed for the treatment of acne;
  • Was safe and well tolerated in adult subjects when administered topically.

The reported results demonstrate the success of the longer term close collaboration between MNIMBS and NanoBio Corp. scientists.

Tuesday, August 31st, 2010 at 9:30 am, Daniel McNerny defended his thesis "DENDRON AVIDITY PLATFORMS WITH ORTHOGONAL FOCAL POINT COUPLING SITE." See abstract.

Medical Science II Building, North Lecture Hall.

Chair: James R. Baker, Jr., M.D.

Monday June 21, 2010, 4-5 PM, Ashutosh Chilkoti, Ph.D., Theo Pilkington Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Biologically Inspired Materials and Materials Systems, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, will give a Doan lecture: Protein-Polymer Nanoparticles for Delivery of Therapeutics

May 2010 Douglas Mullen defended his thesis entitled: Design of Multi-functional Drug Delivery Platforms and earned his Ph.D. in Macromolecular Science and Engineering – The University of Michigan, Ph.D. completed May 2010, conferred August 2010; Advisor – Professor Mark M. Banaszak Holl. 

May 2010, Yunbo Guo defended his thesis and earned his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering with a Nanobiology Certificate, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Thesis: Sensitive, label-free biomolecular binding detection using a one-dimensional photonic crystal sensor. Chair: Professor Theodore B. Norris

Monday March 29, 2010, 4-5 PM, Tarek M. Fahmy, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, will give a Doan Lecture: Biomimetic Approaches to Modulating the Immune Response with Biodegradable Polymers

January, 24, 2010, Yunbo Guo, MNIMBS PhD student, was awarded the Newport Spectra-Physics Research Excellence Travel Grant at the Moscone Center. The work is based on detection of small molecules which is an inherently difficult application for "label-free" optical sensors. "Success in this area would be a significant advance."

December 18, 2009, Ten scientists from U-M named AAAS fellows. Ten U-M faculty members, including James R. Baker, Jr., MD, are among 532 newly elected fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. University Record By Laura Bailey

December 16 2209,   Ann Arbor's NanoBio Corp. signs licensing agreement with GlaxoSmithKline   NanoBio Corp. has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with GlaxoSmithKline plc for the over-the-counter sale of a topical treatment for cold sores.
 By Tom Henderson Crain's Detroit Business

This is an example of successful translation of research. The nanoemulsion on which this topical treatment for cold sores is based was originally developed at MNIMBS.

More announcements of this agreement:

Triangle Business Journal - by James Gallagher

Detroit Free Press - By Patricia Anstett

University of Michigan Health System News - By Anne Rueter

Ann - By Nathan Bomey

PR NewsWire -Source GlaxoSmithKline - By BenZinga Staff

Trading Markets - Source GlaxoSmithKline

Lab News Daily - Source: Univ. of Michigan

Azo - Posted in Nanobusiness and Nanomedicine

December 9, 2009, NanoBio says vaccine adjuvant also effective by injection. By Paul Tinder

November 8, 2009: Know The Nanotechnology Movement. PC Laptop Shop

October 15, 2009: UM MNIMBS and NanoBio get $9.4M new grant injection for adjuvant work. See John Carrol's article in Fierce Vaccines

October 15, 2009: NanoBio reports good results on cystic fibrosis studies. By Tom Henderson Crain's Detroit Business

October 15, 2009: Research and Markets: Dendrimer-Based Nanomedicine: Essential Book for Those Involved in Nanotechnology, Macromolecular Science, Cancer Therapy or Drug Delivery Research Earth Times

September 28, 2009: Nanotech battlefield treatment to ease pain and limit dangerous side effects By Jeff Salton Gizmag

September 24, 2009: Nano pain relief at the front line. Euroasia Semiconductor

September 24, 2009: Nanoparticle-based battlefield pain treatment moves step closer. Anne Rueter UMHS Newsroom

September 15, 2009: Introducing Nanoemulsion Lotion for Treatment of Severe Burns. R & D Magazine

September 14, 2009: Nanotechnology treatment for burns reduces infection, inflammation Nanotechnology treatment for burns reduces infection, inflammation. InSciences Organisation

October 13, 2009:NanoBio, UM Get $9.3M From NIH For Vaccine Development. Great Lakes IT Report - WWJ

August 17, 2009: NanoBio to Present Preclinical Data on its Novel, Nanoemulsion-based Vaccine Adjuvant Platform at the Immunotherapeutics & Vaccine Summit. PharmaLive

This is an example of successful translation of research. The intranasal nanoemulsion-adjuvanted influenza vaccine that NanoBio Corp. now has in Phase I studies was originally developed at MNIMBS.

August 16, 2009: UM researcher aims to treat CF through nanoemulsion tech. By Ryan Beene Crain's Detroit Business

February 11, 2009: University scientists develop new way to treat people with cystic fibrosis By Stephanie Steinberg Michigan Daily

February 6, 2009: Can a brew of oil and water fight infections in cystic fibrosis patients? By Coco Ballantyne, Scientific American

February 5, 2009: Nanoemulsion Potent Against Superbugs That Kill Cystic Fibrosis Patients, Study Suggests. By The News Staff Science Daily

January 19, 2009:  Other Voices: U-M can take the lead in combating disease with technology. By John Prensner, Maggie Kober and Adam Castano in  Maggie Kober is now a 2nd year medical student at UofM and is a former undergrad in MNiMBS for 3.5 years.

January 5, 2009 - Mark Banaszak Holl, professor of chemistry and of macromolecular science and engineering at the University of Michigan, was elected as a fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). "Banaszak Holl studies the development of polymer-based drug transport agents and their interactions with lipid bilayers, organelles and cells. He was honored by AAAS for distinguished contributions bridging disciplinary boundaries in studies of chemical and biochemical processes at the nanoscale." The University Record

August 13, 2008 - Our Nano vaccine for hepatitis B produces strong immunity.  A needle free, nasally applied vaccine that does not require refrigeration offers great possibilities for developing countries.  See our article in PLoS ONE.

April 21 , 2008 - Dr. James R. Baker Jr. has been named the Distinguished University Innovator for 2008. Baker, a scientist in the Medical School and a successful entrepreneur, has conducted breakthrough research in nanotechnology materials and launched two startup companies based on the results. The University Record

March 31 , 2008 - MNIMBS Symposium on Nanotechnology Approaches to Genetic Diagnostics

On Monday afternoon, March 31, 2008, we held our endowed Nanotechnology Symposium named in honor of one of our benefactors, Mr. Herbert D. Doan, the former Chairman of the Dow Chemical Company. Speakers reflecting the cross-disciplinary nature of the Institute included : Charles Cantor, Ph.D. Chief Scientific Officer, Sequenom, San Diego, CA and James W. Schneider, PhD, Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.

March 13, 2008 - “Nanotechnology approach shows promise with vaccines,” Ann Arbor Business Review

March 4, 2008 - “A New Approach to Combatting HIV: High-tech solutions of oil in water could lead to an effective HIV vaccine,” Technology Review

February 26, 2008 - Nanoemulsion vaccines show increasing promise as effective protection against viral diseases.
U-M studies in mice of oil-based nasal vaccine technology show effective immunity against smallpox and HIV.  A novel technique for vaccinating against a variety of infectious diseases – using an oil-based emulsion placed in the nose, rather than needles – has proved able to produce a strong immune response against smallpox and HIV in two new studies

August 16, 2007 - Anthrax vaccine uses nanoparticles to produce immunity
A nasal vaccine shows strong promise in initial animal studies conducted by U-M researchers at the Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and the Biological Sciences. After further studies in animals and people, the result could be a better anthrax vaccine that requires no shots, is effective with only one or two immunizations, needs no refrigeration and could be used effectively after a bioterrorism attack to boost immune response in exposed people.

August 1, 2007 - Nanotech Delivers Cancer Treatment: Cancer therapeutic targets directly to cancer cells...

June 26, 2007 - Dead On Target: Multifunctional Nanoparticle Platforms For Targeting And Imaging Cancer Cells

June 2007 - Hybrid Gold-Dendrimer Nanoparticles Target and Image Tumors

January 24, 2006 - Paper on Pulse Shaping Tops the Competition:"Increasing two-photon fluorescence signals by coherent control"...

November 4, 2005 - Fighting cancer from the inside out
At the University of Michigan Nanotechnology Institute, a nanotechnology equivalent of a Trojan Horse has been created to smuggle a powerful chemotherapy drug inside a cancer tumor cell, increasing the drugs cancer-killing ability. While it is still in the experimental stages, this technology holds great promise to revolutionize medicine

July 11, 2005 - Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Grant : MNIMBS is one of 43 institutions to receive a Grand Challenges in Global Health Initiative grant...

June 27, 2005 - U-M project funded by Gates Foundation: Development of a needle-free nanoemulsion-based vaccine delivery system for Hepatitis B...

June 27, 2005 - Grand Challenges in Global Health Initiative Selects 43 Groundbreaking Research Projects for More Than $436 Million in Funding
Scientists around the world to discover new ways to fight disease in poorest countries.

June 23, 2005 - Nanotech Delivers Cancer treatment: Cancer therapeutic targets directly to cancer cells. University of Michigan scientists have created the nanotechnology equivalent of a Trojan horse to smuggle a powerful chemotherapeutic drug inside tumor cells - increasing the drug's cancer-killing activity and reducing its toxic side effects.

June 15, 2005 - Nanoparticles transport cancer-killing drug into tumor cells to increase efficacy, lower drug toxicity in mice
U-M scientists use folic acid as bait to get methotrexate inside tumor cells.

Nano Trojan horse for chemotherapy
University of Michigan scientists have created the nanotechnology equivalent of a Trojan horse to smuggle a powerful chemotherapeutic drug inside tumor cells - increasing the drug's cancer-killing activity and reducing its toxic side effects.

April 24, 2005 - U-M nanotechnology institute will develop medical and biological applications of ultra-small science. NanoTechWire

Spring 2005 - Nanotechnology - An Engineering Response to Human Problems
Some of the many current investigations into nanotechnology having the objective of helping to improve people's lives in areas such as healthcare, the environment, energy, homeland security and manufacturing.

January 31, 2005 - Nature Methods 2, 156 - 157 (2005) DNA helps dendrimers branch out; National Cancer Institute Nanotech News. Zipping Together Dendrimers with DNA


January 21, 2005 - Customized Cancer Therapeutics; Chosun Ilbo

January 21, 2005. Development of combinatorial assembly techniques of drug delivery vehicles; Maeil Economics

December 6, 2004 - NASA Biosensors
Biosensors detecting radiation exposure on the fly by looking for individual cells that have been harmed.

March 24, 2004 - Making smart drugs that deliver the right kind of punch; Innovations Report by Nancy Ross Flanigan


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